Values Types and the Personal Values System
Extracted from Ian C. Woodward & Samah Shaffakat:
“Understanding Values for Insightfully Aware Leadership”,
INSEAD Faculty and Research Working Paper (2014/46/OBH)
Values can be clustered in 12 types each according to their characteristics. In our research Understanding Values for Insightfully Aware Leadership we have expanded on the 10 value types developed by Shalom Schwartz to create the list found below:
12 VALUES TYPES
Word Description Examples
Independent thought and action; choosing, creating, exploring, and drive.
Capacity to Contribute, Creativity, Empowered, Personally-Engaged/Diligent Freedom/Liberty
Excitement, novelty, optimism and challenge in life.
Energized, Daring, Opportunity-Seeking, Alive, Excited
Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself.
Pleasure, Fun, Indulgence, Enjoying Life, Personal Gratification
Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards.
Accomplishment/Successful, Esteem/ Pride/Confidence, Ambition, Rewarded, Intelligence
Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources.
Powerful, Invincible, Social Recognition, Importance, Authority/Decisive, Affluence/Wealth
Safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self.
Security, Safety, Healthy, Financially-Independent, Sense of Belonging
Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms.
Self-Discipline/Obedience, Professional, Dedicated, Persistent, Responsible, Respectful/Tolerant to Others
Respect for, commitment to, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the self.
Respect Religion, Respect Social Norms, Respect Customs, Humility, Devout
Personal ethicality or moral compass in terms of integrity, honesty, fairness, transparency, accountability, dependability, mutual respect.
Honesty/Integrity, Accountability/ Reliability, Fairness, Ethical, Authenticity
Preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom one is in frequent personal contact (the ‘in-group’).
Trust, Family, Relationships, Teamwork, Empathy, Loyalty
Understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature.
Equality/Inclusion, Helping Disadvantaged, Spirituality, Wisdom, Social Justice
Representation of an idealistic personal state when other values are satisfied such as absolute bliss, completeness, ultimate happiness or elation, total harmony, nirvana and the like.
Ultimate Happiness, Ecstatic/Elation, Nirvana/Bliss, Complete-Calm/Serenity, Absolute Joy/Fulfillment
Schwartz (1994) placed his values types in a circle, a model which again we have amended to include our own research findings – and build upon research from Milton Rokeach (1973), Norman Feather (1995), Kyle Longest, Steven Hitlin and Stephen Vaisey (2013) as well many other studies. Values can be both compatible/congruent and in conflict with each other irrespective of where they lie in the circle and should be considered in context of any given situation.